Microbiological and Physicochemical Qualities of Moo som (Traditional Thai Fermented Meat) Inoculated with Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter

Pussadee Tangwatcharin


Effect of different strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculation on the fermentation rate and qualities of Moo som, a traditional Thai fermented pork was evaluated. Lactobacillus plantarum KL102 (spontaneous starter) and L. plantarum TISIR543 (commercial starter) were used as starter cultures in production of Moo som. The decrease amounts of Staphylococcus aureus and coliforms in Moo som inoculated with L. plantarum KL102 was faster rate than those in Moo som inoculated with L. plantarum TISIR543. However, the final products of Moo som inoculated both LAB starters did not find S. aureus and coliforms loading. Inoculation of both LAB starters could control growth of yeast in samples during fermentation. Furthermore, both starter cultures exhibited a higher rate of fermentation than the control (without inoculum) as demonstrated by the faster rate pH drop and acid production (p < 0.05) during fermentation, while the fermentation of all samples were completed within 3 d.  Due to higher acid production rate, texture, especially hardness, gumminess and chewiness of inoculated Moo som were higher than control Moo som in the final products (p < 0.05). From the result, the inoculation of LAB starter was more beneficial in color and overall of sensory evaluation (p < 0.05). The overall quality was positively correlated with the color, odor and texture of Moo som (p < 0.01). Based on microbiological and physicochemical qualities and sensory evaluation, KL102 is a potential LAB starter for Moo som production.


Moo som, traditional Thai fermented meat, LAB starter, Lactobacillus plantarum


Thai Industrial Standards Insititute. Thai Community Product Standard No. 876/2548: Moom-som, Ministry of Industry, Thailand, 2005, p. 4 (in Thai).

T Khieokhachee, W Praphailong, C Chowvalitnitithum, S Kunawasen, S Kumphati, V Chavasith, S Bhumiratana and R Valyasevi. Microbial interaction in the fermentation of Thai pork sausage. In: Proceedings of the 6th ASEAN Food Conference, Singapore. 1997, p. 312– 318.

KV Paukatong and S Kunawasen. The hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) generic model for the production of Thai pork sausage (Nham). Berliner Und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift. 2001; 114: 1–4.

MR Adams and P Marteau. On the safety of lactic acid bacteria from food. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 1995, DOI: 10.1016/0168-1605(95)00067-T.

M Oliveira,V Ferreira, R Magalhães and P Teixeira. Biocontrol strategies for Mediterranean-style fermented sausages. Food Res. Int. 2018, DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.10.048.

CA Genigeorgis. Quality control for fermented meats. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 1976; 169: 81–93.

P Rotsatchakul, W Visesanguan, T Smitinont and S Chaiseri. Changes in volatile compounds during fermentation of nham (Thai fermented sausage). Int. Food Res. J. 2009; 16: 391-414.

P Luxananil, R Promchai, S Wanasen, S Kamdee, P Thepkasikul, V Plengvidhya, W Visessanguan and R Valyasevi. Monitoring Lactobacillus plantarum BCC 9546 starter culture during fermentation of Nham, a traditional Thai pork sausage. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.12.011.

A Tosukhowong, W Visessanguan, L Pumpuang, P Tepkasikul , A Panya and R Valyasevi. Biogenic amine formation in Nham, a Thai fermented sausage, and the reduction by commercial starter culture, Lactobacillus plantarum BCC 9546. Food Chem. 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.05.033.

A Swetwiwathana, K Pilasombut and J Sethakul. Screening of bacteriocin producing lactic acid bacteria isolated from Thai fermented meat for probiotic prospect. J. Biotechnol. 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2008.07.1757.

A Swetwiwathana and W. Visessanguan. Potential of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria for safety improvements of traditional Thai fermented meat and human health. Meat Sci. 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.05.030.

P Tangwatcharin, J Nithisantawakhup and K Suksuphath. Screening and selection for preliminary property of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented meat products. King Mongkut’s Agri. J. 2016; 34: 67-76.

J Nithisantawakhupt, P Tangwatcharin and N Vijitrothai. Survival of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented meat products in gastrointestinal tract model. In: Proceeding of the 17th Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Societies Animal Science Congress (AAAP2016), Fukuoka, Japan. 2016, p. 1075-1079.

JC De man, M Rogosa and ME Sharpe. A medium for the cultivation of lactobacilli. Appl. Bacteriol. 1960;.23: 130-135.

BAM. Staphylococcus aureus. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/ucm071429.htm , accessed October 2017.

BAM. Enumeration of Escherichia coli and the coliform bacteria in food. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/ucm064948.htm, accessed November 2017.

ISO 6579. Microbiology of Food and Animal Feeding Stuffs-Horizontal Method for the Detection. 4th ed. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland. 2002, p. 9.

AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. 17th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, MD, USA, 2000, p. 2200.

QH Lowry, NJ Rosebrough, LA Farr and RJ Randall. Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 1951; 193: 256–275.

UK Laemmli. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 1970; 277: 680–685.

Y Nakao, A Konno, T Taguchi, T Tawada, H Kasai, J Toda and M Terasaki. Curdlan: Properties and application foods. J. Food Sci. 1991, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1991.tb05378.x}.

AMSA. Guidelines for meat color evaluation. Proceedings of 44th Reciprocal Meat Conference National Live Stock and Meat Board, Chicago, USA, 1991, p. 1-17.

MC Bourne. Texture profile analysis. Food Technol. 1978; 32: 62-65.

S Sorapukdee, C Uesakulrungrueng and K Pilasombut. Effects of humectant and roasting on physicochemical and sensory properties of jerky made from spent hen meat. Korean J. Food Sci. An. 2016; DOI: 10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.3.326.

DD Gioia, G Mazzola, I Nikodinoska, I Aloisio, T Langerholc, M Rossi, S Raimondi, B Melero and J Rovira. Lactic acid bacteria as protective cultures in fermented pork meat to prevent Clostridium spp. growth. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2016, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2016.06.019.

CSM Regina, MG Delaine, MH Humberto, FS Arthur de, Q-S Amparo. Dynamics of the yeast flora in artisanal country style and industrial dry cured sausage (yeast in fermented sausage). Food Control. 2013, DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.05.057.

M Zagorec and M-C Champomier-Vergès. Lactobacillus sakei: A starter for sausage fermentation, a protective culture for meat products. Microorganisms. 2017, DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms5030056.

P Tremonte, G Pannella, M Succi, L Tipaldi, M Sturchio, R Coppola, D Luongo and E Sorrentino. Antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from different environments: a preliminary study. Int. Food Res. J. 2017; 24: 852-9.

G Burgé, C Saulou-Bérion, M Moussa, F Allais, V Athes and HE Spinnler. Relationships between the use of Embden Meyerhof pathway (EMP) or Phosphoketolase pathway (PKP) and lactate production capabilities of diverse Lactobacillus reuteri strains. J. Microbiol. 2015, DOI: 10.1007/s12275-015-5056-x.

K Chadong, S Yunchalard and W Piyatheerawong. Physicochemical characteristics and protein degradation during fermentation of Plaa-som, A traditional fermented fish product of North-Eastern Thailand. Indian J. Tradit. Know. 2015; 14: 220–225.

W Sriphochanart and W Skolpap. Characterization of proteolytic effect of lactic acid bacteria starter cultures on Thai fermented sausages. J. Food Biotechnol. 2010, DOI: 10.1080/08905436.2010.507163.

M Laranjo, M Elias and MJ Fraqueza. The use of starter cultures in traditional meat products. J. Food Quality. 2017, DOI: 10.1155/2017/9546026.

DY Wang, MH Zhang, H Bian, H Dong, WM Xu, XL Xu, YZ Zhu, F Liu, ZM Geng, GH Zhou and P Wang. Proteolysis and cathepsin activities in the processing of dry-cured duck. Poult. Sci. 2014, doi: 10.3382/ps.2013-03335.

S Fadda, MJ Vildoza and G Vignolo. The acidogenic metabolism of Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 681 improves sarcoplasmic protein hydrolysis during meat fermentation. J. Muscle Foods. 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4573.2009.00202.x.

S Freiding, KA Gutsche, MA Ehrmann and RF Vogel. Genetic screening of Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus curvatus strains for their peptidolytic system and amino acid metabolism, and comparison of their volatilomes in a model system. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.syapm.2010.12.006.

F Toldrá. Handbook of Fermented of Meat and Poultry. Wiley Blackwell, West Sussex, UK, 2014, p. 528.

D Demeyer. Meat Fermentaion: Principle and Applications. In: YH Hui (ed.). Handbook of Food Science, Technology and Engineering, volume 2. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2006, p. 65-1 – 65-8.

A Wanangkarn, D-C Liu, A Swetwiwathana and F-J Tan. An innovative method for the preparation of mum (Thai fermented sausages) with acceptable technological quality and extended shelf-life. Food Chem. 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.04.118.

M Karwowska1 and ZJ Dolatowski. Effect of acid whey and freeze-dried cranberries on lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition of nitrite-/nitrate-free fermented sausage made from deer meat. Asian-Australasian J. Anim. Sci. 2017, DOI: 10.5713/ajas.16.0023.

J Gøtterup, K Olsen, S Knøchel, K Tjener, LH Stahnke and JKS Møller. Colour formation in fermented sausages by meat-associated staphylococci with different nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities. Meat Sci. 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.07.023.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Online ISSN: 2228-835X


Last updated: 13 February 2019