A Phenomenological Study: Family Experience in Expressed Emotion in Providing Care for Client with Risk of Aggressive Behavior
Agressive and violent behaviors are among the symptoms manifested in individual with schizophrenia. The relationship between caregiving and mental disorder can be assessed through expressed emotion (EE). This study aimed to identify family experience in expressing emotion when providing care for client with risk of aggressive behavior. The design of the study was qualitative and it employed a phenomenological approach. Six participants were involved in an in-depth interview about their experiences in expressing emotion in providing care for client with risk of aggressive behavior. The findings identified three themes. These are; psychological responses followed by physical responses as manifestated by family response, hostility as reflection of family’s negative emotion, and positive interaction within family to meet psychological need. The findings may be used as a reference for nurses and families to consider EE when providing care for client with risk of aggressive behavior. The result emphasized that psychiatric nurses should consider EE when providing psychosocial interventions as this predicts the course of illness.
J Onwumere, S Grice, P Garety, P Bebbington, G Dunn, D Freeman, D Fowler and E Kuipers. Caregiver reports of patients-initiated violence in psychosis. Can. J. Psychiatr. 2014; 59, 376-84.
BWY Chan. Violence against caregivers by relatives with schizophrenia. Int. J. Forensic Ment. Health 2008; 7, 65-81.
N Gupta and S Mohanty. Relationship of burden and social support with expressed emotion in spouses of persons with schizophrenia. J. Indian Acad. Appl. Psychol. 2016; 42, 172-8.
RL Butzlaff and JM Hooley. Expressed emotion and psychiatric relapse: A meta-analysis. Arch. Gen. Psychiatr. 1998; 55, 547-52.
MA Suband. Family expressed emotion in a javanese cultural context. Cult. Med. Psychiatr. 2011; 35, 331-46.
G Bogojevic, L Ziravac and D Zigmund. Impact of expressed emotion on the course of schizophrenia. Eur. Psychiatr. 2015; 30, 390.
JM Hooley and IH Gotlib. A diathesis-stress conceptualization of expressed emotion and clinical outcome. Appl. Prev. Psychol. 2010; 9, 135-51.
P Darwin. 2013, Hubungan Antara Beban Perawatan Dengan Ekspresi Emosi Serta Faktor-faktor Yang Berhubungan Pada Pramurawat Pada Pasien Skizofrenia di RSJ Islam Klender Jakarta Timur. Theses, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia.
AP Kurniawan and NUI Hasanat. Perbedaan ekspresi emosi pada beberapa tingkat generasi suku jawa di Yogyakarta. Jurnal Psikologi 2007; 34, 1-17.
JW Creswell. Research Design: Pendekatan Kualitatif, Kuantitatif dan Mixed. Pustaka Belajar, Yogyakarta, 2013.
DF Polit and CT Beck. Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice. Wolter Kluwer Health, Philadelpia, 2012.
A Montoya, A Valldares, L Lizan, L San, R Escobar and S Paz. Validation of the excited component of the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS-EC) in a naturalistic sample of 278 patients with acute psychosis and agitation in a psychiatric emergency room. Health Qual. Life Outcome. 2011; 9, 18.
MD Cesnay. Nursing Research Using Phenomenology: Qualitative Designs and Methods in Nursing. New York: Springer Publishing Company, 2015.
Y Afiyanti and IN Rachmawati. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif dalam Riset Keperawatan. 1st ed. Rajawali Pers, Jakarta, 2014.
JJ Gross. Handbook of Emotion Regulation. 2nd ed. Guilford Press, New York, 2014.
EP Sarafino. Health Psychology: Biopsychosocial Interactions. 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons, USA, 2006.
S Sadiq and K Suhail. Relationship of expressed emotion with burden of care and health of caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. Pakistan J. Soc. Clin. Psychol. 2013; 11, 3-10.
E Tomlinson, J Onwumere and E Kuipers. Distress and negative experiences of the caregiving relationship in early psychosis: Does social cognition play a role? Early Interv. Psychiatr. 2014; 8, 253-60.
K Bademli, N Lok and AK Kilic. Relationship between caregiving burden and anger level in primary caregivers of individuals with chronic mental illness. Arch. Psychiatr. Nurs. 2017; 31, 263-8.
JA Kymalainen and MAG Weisman. Expressed emotion, communication deviance and culture in families of patients with schizophrenia: A review of the literature. Cultur. Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2008; 14, 85-91.
FM Suseno. Etika Jawa: Sebuah Analisa Falsafi Tentang kebijaksanaan hidup Jawa. PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta. 2001.
M Koschorke, R Padmavati, S Kumar, A Cohen, HA Weiss, S Chatterjee, J Pereira, S Naik, S John, H Dabholkar, M Balaji, A Chavan, M Varghese, R Thara, V Patel and G Thornicroft. Experience of stigma and discrimination faced by family caregivers of people with schizophrenia in India. Soc. Sci. Med. 2017; 178, 66-77.
O Santesteban-Echarri, MA Ramos-Olazagasti, RE Eisenberg, C Wei, HR Bird, G Canino and CS Duarte. Parental warmth and psychiatric disorders among Puerto Rican children in two different socio-cultural contexts. J. Psychiatr. Res. 2017; 87, 30-6.
MM Friedman, VR Bowden and EG Jones. Buku Ajar Keperawatan Keluarga: Riset, Teori dan Praktik. In: S Tiar and AY Hamid (Eds.). 5th ed. EGC, Jakarta, 2010.
TM Schaffer. 2014, The Experience of the Addiction-affected Family: A Communication based Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Dissertation, University of Memphis, Memphis, USA.
Copyright (c) 2018 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.