Study of Thermal and Mechanical Properties of LLDPE/Sugarcane bagasse/Eggshell Hybrid Biocomposites



Thermal and mechanical properties of neat linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) hybrid biocomposite with sugarcane bagasse and eggshell as a reinforcing filler were investigated. Hybrid biocomposites with sugarcane bagasse/eggshell was varied in the range of 6/4, 12/8, 17/13, 20/20, 13/17, 8/12, and 4/6 wt.%, were prepared and examined. The sugarcane bagasse fiber (Sb) was surface-treated using a silane coupling agent (3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate) and eggshell (Es) was treated using titanium (IV) isopropoxide. The results showed that high calcium oxide content was 99% by weight in eggshell and silicon dioxide content was 50% by weight in sugarcane bagasse. The tensile and flexural modulus and hardness of the composites with treated Sb/Es were higher than that of the untreated. These values of the LLDPE/Sb/Es composites increased with Sb/Es content. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results show interesting trends in term of the influence of Sb/Es content, both with untreated and treated Sb/Es on the crystallization behavior of the composites but the melting and cold crystallization temperature of its composites did not obviously change. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated their thermal stability of the composites, both untreated and surface-treated Sb/Es were lower than that of neat LLDPE. The sample molded from the biocomposite with surface-treated Sb/Es particles showed better dispersion of the materials inside.


Sugarcane bagasse, eggshell, linear low-density polyethylene, thermal properties, mechanical properties


WU Yepes, JC Posada, LY Jaramillo and JD Sierra. Study of mechanical and physical properties of

LLDPE-G-MA injection grade reinforced with coffee husk post-industrial waste. J. Compos. Mater. 2017; 51, 419-29.

W Sitticharoen, A Chainawakul, T Sangkas and Y Kuntham. Rheological and mechanical properties of silica-based bagasse-fiber-ash-reinforced recycled HDPE composites. Mech. Compos. Mater. 2016; 52, 421-32.

J Kajaks, Z Zelca and S Kukle. The effect of modification methods on the performance characteristics of composites based on a linear low-density polyethylene and natural hemp fibers. Mech. Compos. Mater. 2015; 51, 677-82.

H Peltola, E Pääkkönen, P Jetsu and S Heinemann. Wood based PLA and PP composites: Effect of

fibre type and matrix polymer on fibre morphology, dispersion and composite properties. Compos.

Part A: Appl. Sci. Manuf. 2014; 61, 13-22.

Office of cane and sugar board. Report on total cane crushing and sugar production 2014/2015. Thailand: Ministry of industry. 2015.

DR Mulinari, HJC Voorwald, MOH Cioffi, MLCP Da Silva and SM Luz. Preparation and properties of HDPE/sugarcane bagasse cellulose composites obtained for thermokinetic mixer. Carbohydr. Polym. 2009; 75, 317-21.

SM Luz, JD Tio, GJM Rocha, AR Gonçalves and APD Arco Jr. Cellulose and cellulignin from sugarcane bagasse reinforced polypropylene composites: Effect of acetylation on mechanical and thermal properties. Compos. Part A: Appl. Sci. Manuf. 2008; 39, 1362-69.

A Ashori, S Sheshmani and F Farhani. Preparation and characterization of bagasse/HDPE composites using multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Carbohydr. Polym. 2013; 92, 865-71.

Y Lei, Q Wu, F Yao and Y Xu. Preparation and properties of recycled HDPE/natural fiber composites. Compos. Part A: Appl. Sci. Manuf. 2007; 38, 1664-74.

TA Hassan,VK Rangari, RK Rana and S Jeelani. Sonochemical effect on size reduction of CaCO3

nanoparticles derived from waste eggshells. Ultrason. Sonochem. 2013; 20, 1308-15.

YS Ok, SS Lee, WT Jeon, SE Oh, ARA Usman and DH Moon. Application of eggshell waste for

the immobilization of cadmium and lead in a contaminated soil. Environ. Geochem. Health. 2011;

, 31-39.

H Khandelwal and S Prakash. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite powder by eggshell.

J. Miner. Mater. Charact. Eng. 2016; 4, 119-26.

S Wang, MH Wei and YM Huang. Biosorption of multifold toxic heavy metal ionsfrom aqueous

water onto food residue eggshell membrane functionalized with ammonium thioglycolate. J.Agric.

Food Chem. 2013; 61, 4988-96.

S Yoo, JS Hsieh, P Zou and J Kokoszka. Utilization of calcium carbonate particles from eggshell

waste as coating pigments for ink-jet printing paper. Bioresour. Technol. 2009; 100, 6416-21.

T Boronat, V Fombuena, D Garcia-Sanoguera, L Sanchez-Nacher and R Balart. Development of a

biocomposite based on green polyethylene biopolymer and eggshell. Mater. Des. 2015; 68, 177-

M Bootklad and K Kaewtatip. Biodegradation of thermoplastic starch/eggshell powder composites.

Carbohydr. Polym. 2013; 97, 315-20.

C Fragassa, A Pavlovic and C Santulli. Mechanical and impact characterisation of flax and basalt

fibre vinylester composites and their hybrids. Compos. Part B: Eng. 2018; 137, 247-59.

MS Huda, LT Drzal, AK Mohanty and M Misra. The effect of silane treated-and untreated-talc on

the mechanical and physic-mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid)/newspaper fibers/talc hybrid

composites. Compos. Part B: Eng. 2007; 38, 367-79.

M Aslan, M Tufan and T Küçükömeroğlu. Tribological and mechanical performance of sisal-filled

waste carbon and glass fibre hybrid composites. Compos. Part B: Eng. 2018; 140, 241-49.

O Senturk, AE Senturk and M Palabiyik. Evaluation of hybrid effect on the thermomechanical

and mechanical properties of calcite/SGF/PP hybrid composites. Compos. Part B: Eng. 2018; 140,


LJ da Silva, TH Panzera, VR Velloso, AL Christoforo and F Scarpa. Hybrid polymeric composites

reinforced with sisal fibres and silica microparticles. Compos. Part B: Eng. 2012; 43, 3436-44.

DR Mulinari, HJC Voorwald, MOH Cioffi, MLCP Da Silva, TG Da Cruz and C Saron. Sugarcane

bagasse cellulose/HDPE composites obtained by extrusion. Compos. Sci. Technol. 2009; 69, 214-

JO Agunsoye and VS Aigbodion. Bagasse filled recycled polyethylene bio-composites :

Morphological and mechanical properties study. Results. Phys. 2013; 3, 187-94.

NR Galina, CMR Luna, GLAF Arce and I Avila. Comparative study on combustion and oxy-fuel

combustion environments using mixtures of coal with sugarcane bagasse and biomass sorghum

bagasse by the thermogravimetric analysis. J. Energy Inst. 2018; 1-14.

JL Guimarães, E Frollini, CG da Silva, F Wypych and KG Satyanarayana. Characterization of

banana, sugarcane bagasse and sponge gourd fibers of Brazil. Ind. Crops. Prod. 2009; 30, 407-15.

H Quan, ZM Li, MB Yang and R Huang. On transcrystallinity in semi-crystalline polymer

composites. Compos. Sci. Technol. 2005; 65, 999-1021.

N Sombatsompop, A Kositchaiyong and E Wimolmala. Experimental analysis of temperature and

crystallinity profiles of wood sawdust/polypropylene composites during cooling. J. Appl. Polym.

Sci. 2006; 102, 1896-905.

MA Sawpan, KL Pickering and A Fernyhough. Improvement of mechanical performance of

industrial hemp fibre reinforced polylactide biocomposites. Compos. Part A: Appl. Sci. Manuf. 2011; 42, 310-19.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Online ISSN: 2228-835X

Last updated: 13 February 2019