Nutrient Removal by Suspended and Biofilm Microalgae for Treating the Wastewater of Agro-Industrial Pig Farm

Rungnapha Khiewwijit, Klinpratoom Panyaping, Pattra Wongpankamol

Abstract


In this study, laboratory-scale suspended and biofilm microalgal systems were constructed under outdoor climatic conditions in Northern Thailand to compare their performances on nutrient nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal and biomass production from anaerobically digested piggery wastewater. At a cultivation time of 14 days, the results showed that removal efficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus from digested piggery wastewater in biofilm microalgal system were higher than suspended microalgal system. Biofilm system removed on average of 96% of TKN-N and 92% of PO43--P, whereas suspended system removed on average of 84% of TKN-N and 87% of PO43--P. Average biomass production achieved 1.17 g dry weight/day for suspended system, while a lower production of 0.78 g dry weight/day was found for biofilm system in which possibly due to a long harvesting frequency of every two-weeks. Meanwhile, biofilm system has an advantage over suspended system with respect to simple biomass harvesting. This combination of findings demonstrates that biofilm microalgal system is more suitable for removing N and P from digested piggery wastewater than suspended microalgal system. Besides, biomass production in biofilm microalgal system could be further optimized by shorter harvesting frequency and partially harvesting of the biofilm biomass. This study indicates that microalgae offer the potential to recover valuable nutrient resources from piggery wastewater and use biomass for sustainable energy production or other high-value products, which will improve sustainability of agro-industrial wastewater management in the future.


Keywords


Digested piggery wastewater (DPW), nitrogen removal, phosphorus removal, suspended microalgae, biofilm microalgae

References


U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Livestock and poultry: World market and trade. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. Available at: https://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/livestock_ poultry.pdf, accessed June 2017.

DP Chynoweth, AC Wilkie and JM Owens. Anaerobic processing of piggery wastes: a review. In: American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) annual international meeting, Orlando, Florida, USA, 12-16 July, 1998; 38.

G-J Liu, D Zheng, L-W Deng, Q Wen and Y Liu. Comparison of constructed wetland and stabilization pond for the treatment of digested effluent of swine wastewater. Environ. Technol. 2014; 35(21), 2660-2669.

S Kayombo, TSA Mbwette, JHY Katima, N Ladegaard and SE Jorgensen. Waste stabilization ponds and constructed wetlands design manual. UNEP-IETC with the Danish International Development Agency (Danida). 2005; 1-59.

X Song, R Liu, L Chen, B Dong and T Kawagishi. Advantages of intermittently aerated SBR over conventional SBR on nitrogen removal for the treatment of digested piggery wastewater. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng. 2017; 11(3):13, 1-10.

X Song, R Liu, L Chen and T Kawagishi. Comparative experiment on treating digested piggery wastewater with a biofilm MBR and conventional MBR: simultaneous removal of nitrogen and antibiotics. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng. 2017; 11(2):11, 1-9.

M Zhang, PG Lawlor, Z Hu and X Zhan. Nutrient removal from separated pig manure digestate liquid using hybrid biofilters. Environ. Technol. 2013; 34(5), 645-651.

S Cheunbarn and Y Peerapornpisal. Cultivation of Spirulina platensis Using Anaerobically Swine Wastewater Treatment Effluent. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 2010; 12(4), 586-590.

MK Ji, RA Abou-Shanab, JH Hwang, TC Timmes, HC Kim, YK Oh and BH Jeon. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from piggery wastewater effluent using the green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus. J. Environ. Eng. 2013; 139(9), 1198-1205.

EG Nwoba, JM Ayre, NR Moheimani, BE Ubi and JC Ogbonna. Growth comparison of microalgae in tubular photobioreactor and open pond for treating anaerobic digestion piggery effluent. Algal Res. 2016; 17, 268-276.

M Wang, Y Yang, Z Chen, Y Chen, Y Wen and B Chen. Removal of nutrients from undiluted anaerobically treated piggery wastewater by improved microalgae. Bioresour. Technol. 2016; 222, 130-138.

C Enzing, M Ploeg, MJ Barbosa and L Sijtsma. Microalgae-based products for food and feed sector: an outlook for Europe. Joint Research Centre (JRC) scientific and policy reports. 2014.

M Haque, P Bangrak, S Sirisansaneeyakul and W Choorit. Factors affecting the biomass and lipid production from Chlorella sp. TISTR 8990 under mixotrophic culture. Walailak J. Sci. & Techn. 2012; 9(4), 347-359.

R Khiewwijit, H Temmink, H Rijnaarts and KJ Keesman. Energy and nutrient recovery for municipal wastewater treatment: how to design a feasible plant layout? Environ. Model. Softw. 2015; 68, 156-165.

ME Montingelli, S Tedesco and AG Olabi. Biogas production from algal biomass: a review. Renew. Sustainable Energy Rev. 2015; 43, 961-972.

R Whitton, F Ometto, M Pidou, P Jarvis, R Villa and B Jefferson. Microalgae for municipal wastewater nutrient remediation: mechanisms, reactors and outlook for tertiary treatment. Environ. Technol. Rev. 2015; 4(1), 133-148.

NC Boelee, M Janssen, H Temmink, L Taparavičiūtė, R Khiewwijit, Á Jánoska, CJN Buisman and RH Wijffels. The effect of harvesting on biomass production and nutrient removal in phototrophic biofilm reactors for effluent polishing. J. Appl. Phycol. 2014; 26(3), 1439-1452.

L Katarzyna, G Sai and OA Singh. Non-enclosure methods for non-suspended microalgae cultivation: literature review and research needs. Renew. Sustainable Energy Rev. 2015; 42, 1418-1427.

APHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 21st edn. Washington, USA: American Water Works Association (AWWA) and Water Environment Federation (WEF). 2005.

Pollution Control Department. Notification of the ministry of natural resources and environment, effluent standard for pig farm: dated November 7, B.E. 2548 (2005) published in the royal government Gazette, vol. 122 and part 125 D and dated december 29, B.E. 2548 (2005).

NC Boelee, H Temmink, M Janssen, CJN Buisman and RH Wijffels. Scenario analysis of nutrient removal from municipal wastewater by microalgal biofilms. Water. 2012; 4(2), 460-473.

PK Mohapatra. Textbook of environmental microbiology. New Delhi, India: IK International Publishing House. 2008.

J Lee, J Lee, SK Shukla, J Park and TK Lee. Effect of algal inoculation on COD and nitrogen removal, and indigenous bacterial dynamics in municipal wastewater. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2016; 26(5), 900-908.

D Vandamme, I Foubert, I Fraeye and K Muylaert. Influence of organic matter generated by Chlorella vulgaris on five different modes of flocculation. Bioresour. Technol. 2012; 124, 508-511.

C González-Fernández, B Riaño-Irazábal, B Molinuevo-Salces, S Blanco and MC García-González. Effect of operational conditions on the degradation of organic matter and development of microalgae–bacteria consortia when treating swine slurry. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2011; 90(3), 1147-1153.

C González-Fernández, B Sialve, N Bernet and JP Steyer. Impact of microalgae characteristics on their conversion to biofuel. Part II: focus on biomethane production. Biofuels, Bioprod. Biorefin. 2012; 6(2), 205-218.

S Astals, RS Musenze, X Bai, S Tannock, S Tait, S Pratt and PD Jensen. Anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and algae: impact of intracellular algal products recovery on co-digestion performance. Bioresour. Technol. 2015; 181, 97-104.

AI Barros, AL Gonçalves, M Simões and JCM Pires. Harvesting techniques applied to microalgae: a review. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 2015; 41, 1489-1500.

M Singh, R Shukla and K Das. Harvesting of microalgal biomass. In Biotechnological applications of microalgae (biodiesel and value-added products): CRC Press New York. 2013.

N Mallick, SK Bagchi, S Koley and AK Singh. Progress and challenges in microalgal biodiesel production. Front. Microbiol. 2016; 7:1019, 1-11.

H Cao, Z Zhang, X Wu and X Miao. Direct biodiesel production from wet microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa through in situ transesterification. BioMed Res. Int. 2013; article ID 930686, 1-6.

SP Singh and P Singh. Effect of temperature and light on the growth of algae species: a review. Renew. Sustainable Energy Rev. 2015; 50, 431-444.

Northern Meteorological Center. Temperature in Chiang Mai (°C). Available at: http://www.cmmet. tmd.go.th/, accessed June 2017. (in Thai).

Nakhonthai Automatic Weather Stations. Solar radiation - Weather forecast and monitor site. Available at: http://aws.nakhonthai.net/index.php, accessed June 2017.

Boelee NC. 2013, Microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment, Ph. D. Dissertation. Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

AE Marchello, AT Lombardi, MJ Dellamano-Oliveira and CWO de Souza. Microalgae population dynamics in photobioreactors with secondary sewage effluent as culture medium. Braz. J. Microbiol. 2015; 46(1), 75-84.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




http://wjst.wu.ac.th/public/site/images/admin/image012_400

Online ISSN: 2228-835X

http://wjst.wu.ac.th

Last updated: 13 February 2019