Factors Influencing the Performance of Coal Briquettes

Unsia HABIB, Muddasar HABIB, Amad Ullah KHAN


The continuous supply of energy resources is essential for the development of any nation. The economic and social life of any nation depends enormously on the energy resources. Over the past few years the energy crisis is becoming a major issue in developing countries as Pakistan. Oil, Natural gas and hydro are the three major energy resources of the Pakistan. These conventional energy resources were being exploited in the past leading to an issue of energy crisis in the country. Replacing expensive imported energy resources with coal briquettes made from indigenous coal reserves can provide fuel for the local residential and commercial markets. Coal briquettes formation is a process to convert coal powder into a specific shape with the help of a binder. An external force is applied to the coal binder mixture to make a firm body of desired shape. The briquettes formed this way will not disintegrate under normal conditions of transportation and use. Coal briquettes are preferred over raw coal because they are a smokeless, strong and low emissive fuel that can be used in numerous domestic and commercial applications. The performance of coal briquettes formed is dependent largely upon its thermal properties and the mechanical strength. Nowadays an environmentally safe briquettes formation process is also included in the performance criteria of coal briquettes. The mechanical strength of coal briquettes affects its storage and transportation to the intended market. The studies on coal briquettes show that coal briquettes quality depends on many factors like the type of binder, quantity of binder, grade of coal, moisture level, coal particle size and its distribution etc. These factors along with some of the factors as time of compaction, compaction temperature, and compaction pressure and moisture level are discussed in this paper to evaluate the performance of briquetting technology in future.



Coal briquettes, strength of coal briquettes, binders, alternative energy source

Full Text:



A Wolela. Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Coal deposits. Int. J. Coal Geol. 2007; 72, 293-314.

P Siritheerasa, C Chomthida and P Sethabunjong. Combustion of moist coal briquettes. Chiang Mai J. Sci. 2008; 35, 35-42.

H Kim and M Sadakata. Binding and desulphurization characteristics of pulp black liquor in biocoalbriquettes. Environ. Sci. Tech. 2002; 36, 160-712.

X Xuchang, C Chen, Q Haiyin, H Rong, C You and G Xiang. Development of coal combustion pollution control for SO2 and NOx in China. Fuel Process. Tech. 2000; 62, 153-60.

G Zhi, C Peng, Y Chen, D Liu, G Sheng and J Fu. Deployment of coal briquettes and improved stoves: possibly an option for both environment and climate. Environ. Sci. Tech. 2009; 43, 5586-91.

G Lu, H Kim, J Yuan, I Naruse and K Ohtake. Experimental study on self-desulfurization characteristics of bio briquette in combustion. Energ. Fuel. 1998; 12, 689-96.

GS Glenn. The competitiveness of coal briquettes in Pakistan. Energy 2003; 18, 371-96.

RB Gammage, EA Wachter, J Wade, DL Wilson, N Ahmad, F Sibtain and MZ Raza. Impact on indoor air quality during burning of Pakistani coal briquettes. Environ. Int. 1993; 19, 133-45.

D Taulbee, DP Patil, RQ Honaker and BK Parekh. Briquetting of coal fines and sawdust Part I: Binder and briquetting-parameters evaluations. Int. J. Coal Preparat. Utilizat. 2009; 29, 1-22.

N Berkowitz. Fundamental aspects of coal Briquetting. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Biennial Conference, IBA, 1953.

HR Gregory. A new process for briquetting coal without a binder. J. Ins. Fuel. 1960; 33, 447-61.

SR Motaung, SJ Mangena, GJ. de Korte, RI McCrindle and JHP Heerden. Effects of coal composition and flotation reagents on the water resistance of binderless briquettes. Coal Preparat. 2007; 27, 230-48.

ANE Rahman, MA Masood, CSN Prasad and M Venkatesham. Influence of size and shape on the strength of briquettes. Fuel Process. Tech. 1989; 23, 185-95.

MJ Blesa, JL Miranda, R Moliner and MT Izquierdo. Curing temperature effect on mechanical strength of smokeless fuel briquettes prepared with molasses. Fuel 2003; 82, 943-7.

A Benk. Utilisation of the binders prepared from coal tar pitch and phenolic resins for the production metallurgical quality briquettes from coke breeze and the study of their high temperature carbonization behavior. Fuel Process. Tech. 2010; 91, 1152-61.

MR Miller, GL Fields, RW Fisher and TD Wheelock. Coal briquetting without a binder. In: Proceedings of the 16th Biennial Conference, IBA, 1979.

AZ Moghaddam, NG Zanjani, S Dorosti and M Vaez. Physical properties of solid fuel briquettes from bituminous coal waste and biomass. J. Coal Sci. Eng. 2011; 17, 434-8.

P Burchill, GD Hallam, AJ Lowe and N Moon. Studies of coals and binder systems for smokeless fuel briquettes. Fuel Process. Tech. 1994; 41, 63-77.

B Gunnink and W Li. Optimal moisture for rapid compaction of coal logs for freight pipelines. Powder Tech. 2000, 107, 273-81.

NE Altun, C Hicyilmaz and AS Bagci. Influence of coal briquette size on combustion kinetics. Fuel Process. Tech. 2004; 85, 1345-57.

M Yildirim, G Ozbayoglu. Environmentally sound coal-derived binder for coal briquetting. Coal Preparat. 2010; 22, 269-76.

NE Altun, C Hicyilmaz and MV Kok. Effect of different binders on the combustion properties of lignite part I. Effect on thermal properties. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 2001; 65, 787-95.

G Ellison and BR Stanmore. High strength binderless brown coal briquettes. Part I. Production and properties. Fuel Process. Tech. 1981; 4, 277-89.

ML Kubacki, AB Ross, JM Jones and A Williams. Small-scale co-utilisation of coal and biomass. Fuel 2012; 101, 84-9.

C Ryu, K Finney, VN Sharifi and J Swithenbank. Pelletised fuel production from coal tailings and spent mushroom compost Part I: Identification of pelletisation parameters. Fuel Process. Tech. 2008; 89, 269-75.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Online ISSN: 2228-835X


Last updated: 1 March 2018