Evaluation of Antidiabetic, Antioxidant and Other Phytochemical Properties of Thai Fruits, Vegetables and Some Local Food Plants

Suree Nanasombat

Abstract


Antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-acetylcholinesterase and prebiotic activities, total phenolics and flavonoids of 33 crude ethanolic extracts of Thai local fruits, vegetables and some local food plants were determined. Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) fruit peel and Indian gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica) fruit extracts had highest antioxidant activity. Bamboo grass (Tiliacora triandra) leaf extract had strongest α-amylase inhibitory activity (78.28 % inhibition), while mulberry (Morus alba) fruit extract had strongest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (59.63 % inhibition). Star cactus (Aloe vera) gel extract had strongest anti-acetylcholinesterase activity (31.55 % inhibition). Indian gooseberry fruit and mangosteen fruit peel extracts had highest total phenolics and flavonoids, respectively. The extract with highest indigestible polysaccharide content was the extract of mangosteen fruit peels (188.62 mg/g extract), while those with relatively high indigestible polysaccharides were the extracts of pineapple fruits (Ananas comosus), lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera), black rice grains (Oryza sativa) and pisang mas fruits (Musa acuminata). Based on these properties, five plant extracts were selected to study for their prebiotic effect on growth and fermentation of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophiles  in yogurt at 42°C. Addition of lotus seed extract resulted in highest proliferation of these bacteria with 2.24 logCFU/g increase of total lactic acid bacterial (LAB) counts in yogurt after 24-hour fermentation, while addition of black rice grain, pisang mas fruit and pineapple fruit extracts caused good growth of these bacteria  with 2.12-2.19 logCFU /g increase of total counts.

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