Evaluation of Antidiabetic, Antioxidant and Other Phytochemical Properties of Thai Fruits, Vegetables and Some Local Food Plants

Suree Nanasombat


Antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-acetylcholinesterase and prebiotic activities, total phenolics and flavonoids of 33 crude ethanolic extracts of Thai local fruits, vegetables and some local food plants were determined. Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) fruit peel and Indian gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica) fruit extracts had highest antioxidant activity. Bamboo grass (Tiliacora triandra) leaf extract had strongest α-amylase inhibitory activity (78.28 % inhibition), while mulberry (Morus alba) fruit extract had strongest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (59.63 % inhibition). Star cactus (Aloe vera) gel extract had strongest anti-acetylcholinesterase activity (31.55 % inhibition). Indian gooseberry fruit and mangosteen fruit peel extracts had highest total phenolics and flavonoids, respectively. The extract with highest indigestible polysaccharide content was the extract of mangosteen fruit peels (188.62 mg/g extract), while those with relatively high indigestible polysaccharides were the extracts of pineapple fruits (Ananas comosus), lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera), black rice grains (Oryza sativa) and pisang mas fruits (Musa acuminata). Based on these properties, five plant extracts were selected to study for their prebiotic effect on growth and fermentation of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophiles  in yogurt at 42°C. Addition of lotus seed extract resulted in highest proliferation of these bacteria with 2.24 logCFU/g increase of total lactic acid bacterial (LAB) counts in yogurt after 24-hour fermentation, while addition of black rice grain, pisang mas fruit and pineapple fruit extracts caused good growth of these bacteria  with 2.12-2.19 logCFU /g increase of total counts.


M Blasa, L Gennari, D Angelino and P Ninfali. Fruit and vegetable antioxidants in health. In: Watson RR and Preedy VR (eds.), Bioactive Food in Promoting Health: Fruits and vegetables. Elsevier Inc., New York, USA, 2010, p. 37-58.

AM Pisoschi and A Pop. The role of antioxidants in the chemistry of oxidative stress: A review. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 2015; 97, 55-74.

P Rajendran, N Nandakumar, T Rengarajan, R Palaniswami, EN Gnanadhas, U Lakshminarasaiah, J Gopas and I Nishigaki. Antioxidants and human diseases. Clin. Chim. Acta. 2014; 436, 332-47.

DK Patel, R Kumar, D Laloo and S Hemalatha. Diabetes mellitus: An overview on its pharmacological aspects and reported medicinal plants having antidiabetic activity. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012; 2, 411-20.

P Arulselvan, HAA Ghofar, G Karthivashan, MFA Halim, MSA Ghafar and S Fakurazi. Antidiabetic therapeutics from natural source: A systematic review. Biomed. Prev Nutr. 2014; 4, 607-17.

M Heinrich and HL Teoh. Galanthamine from snowdrop-the development of a modern drug against Alzheimer’s disease from local Caucasian knowledge. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004; 92, 147-62.

N Tabet. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer’s disease: anti-inflammatories in acetylcholine clothing!. Age Ageing. 2006; 35, 336-8.

H Sugimoto. The new approach in development of anti-Alzheimer’s disease drugs via the cholinergic hypothesis. Chemico-Biol. Interact. 2008; 175, 204-8.

DA Butterfield, A Castegna, CB Pocernich, J Drake, G Scapagnini and V Calabrese. Nutritional approaches to combat oxidative stress in Alzheimer’s disease. J. Nutr. Biochem. 2002; 13, 444-61.

D Mudgil and S Barak. Composition, properties and health benefits of indigestible carbohydrate polymers as dietary fiber: A review. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2013; 61, 1-6.

JG Muir, SJ Shepherd, O Rosella, R Rose, JS Barrett and PR Gibson. Fructan and free fructose content of common Australian vegetables and fruits. J. Agr. Food Chem. 2007; 55, 6619-27.

S Sancheti, S. Sancheti and S-Y Seo. Antidiabetic and antiacetylcholinesterase effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Chaenomeles sinensis (Thouin) Koehne fruits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 2013; 65, 55-60.

MR Loizzo, AM Saab, R Tundis, F Menichini, M Bonesi, V Piccolo, GA Statti, B de Cindio, PJ Houghton and F Menichini. In vitro inhibitory activities of plants used in Lebanon traditional medicine against angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and digestive enzymes related to diabetes. J Ethnopharmacol.2008; 119, 109-16.

G-N Kim, J-G Shin and H-D Jang. Antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of Dangyuja (Citrus grandis Osbeck) extract treated with Aspergillus saitoi. Food Chem. 2009; 117, 35-41.

W Brand-Williams, ME Cuvelier and C Berset. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 1995; 28, 25-30.

C Lado, M Then, I Varga, E Szoke and K Szentmihályi. Antioxidant property of volatile oils determined by the ferric reducing ability. Z. Naturforsch. C. 2004; 59, 354-8.

GL Ellman, KD Courtney, V Andres jr., RM Featherstone. A new rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity. Biochem Pharmacol. 1961; 7, 88-95.

S Sancheti, S Sancheti, B-H Um, S-Y Seo. 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl--D-glucose: A cholinesterase inhibitor from Terminalia chebula. S Afr J Bot. 2010; 76, 285-8.

VL Singleton, R Orthofer, RM Lamuela-Raventόs. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocateu reagent. Methods Enzymol. 1999; 299, 152-78.

A Kathirvel, V Sujatha. In vitro assessment of antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Terminalia chebula Retz. leaves. Asian Pac J Tropical Biomed. 2012; 2, S788-95.

S Wichienchot, P Thammarutwasik, A Jongjareonrak, W Chansuwan, P Hmadhlu, T Hongpattarakere, A Itharat and B Ooraikul. Extraction and analysis of prebiotics from selected plants from southern Thailand. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 2011; 33, 517-23.

GL Miller. Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal. Chem. 1959; 31, 426-8.

M Dubois, KA Gilles, JK Hamilton, PA Rebers and F Smith. Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal. Chem., 1956; 28, 350-6.

R Agil, A Gaget, J Gliwa, TJ Avis,WG Willmore and F Hosseinian. Lentils enhance probiotic growth in yogurt and provide added benefit of antioxidant protection. LWT – Food Sci. Technol. 2013; 50, 45-9.

AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis: AOAC official Method. Association of Official Chemists, Washington, DC, USA, 2005.

P Boonsong, N Laohakunjit and O Kerdchoechuen. Identification of polyphenolic compounds and colorants from Tiliacora triandra (Diels) leaves. J. Agr. Sci. 2009; 40, 13-6.

M Vessal, M Hemmati and M Vasei. Antidiabetic effects of quercetin in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Comp. Biochem. Physiology -Part C: Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2003; 135, 357-64.

A Eidi, M Eidi and E Esmaeili. Antidiabetic effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Phytomedicine, 2006; 13, 624–9.

G Saravanan, P Ponmurugan, GPS Kumar and T Rajarajan. Antidiabetic properties of S-allyl cysteine, a garlic component on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. J. Appl. Biomed. 2009; 7, 151-9.

Z Yang, Y Wang, Y Wang and Y Zhang. Bioassay-guided screening and isolation of a-glucosidase and tyrosinase inhibitors from leaves of Morus alba. Food Chem. 2012; 131, 617-25.

C Liu,W Xiang, Y Yu, Z-Q Shi, X-Z Huang, and L Xu. Comparative analysis of 1-deoxynojirimycin contribution degree to α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and physiological distribution in Morus alba L. Ind. Crop. Prod. 2015; 70, 309-15.

W Luo, M Zhao, B Yang, J Ren, G Shen and G Rao. Antioxidant and antiproliferative capacities of phenolics purified from Phyllanthus emblica L. fruit. Food Chem. 2011; 126, 277-82.

R Zadernowski, S Czaplicki and M Naczk. Phenolic acid profiles of mangosteen fruits (Garcinia mangostana). Food Chem. 2009; 112, 685-9.

HM Kredy, D Huang, B Xie, H He, E Yang, B Tian and D Xiao. Flavonols of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera, Gaertn.) seed epicarp and their antioxidant potential. European Food Research and Technology. 2010; 231, 387-94.

G-C Yen, P-D Duh and H-J Su. Antioxidant properties of lotus seed and its effect on DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Food Chem. 2005; 89, 379-385.

AO Somanabandhu, N Ruangrungsi, GL Lange and MG Organ. Constituents

of the stem bark of Zanthoxylum limonella. J. Sci. Soc. Thailand. 1992; 18, 181–5.

P Sithisarn and S Jarikasem. Antioxidant activity of Acanthopanax trifoliatus.

Med. Princ. Pract. 2009; 18, 393-8.

R. Bawankar, VC Deepti, P Singh, R Subashkumar, G Vivekanandhan and S Babu. Evaluation of bioactive potential of an Aloe vera sterol extract. Phytother. Res. 2013; 27, 864-8.

SH Al-Sheraji, A Ismail, MY Manap, S Mustafa, RM Yusof and FA Hassan. Prebiotics as functional foods: A review. J. Funct. Food. 2013; 5, 1542-53.

Y Zhang, H Zeng, Y Wang, S Zeng and B Zheng. Structural characteristics and crystalline properties of lotus seed resistant starch and its prebiotic effects. Food Chem. 2014; 155, 311-8.

D Sumczynski, Z Bubelová and M Fišera. Determination of chemical, insoluble dietary fibre, neutral-detergent fibre and in vitro digestibility in rice types commercialized in Czech markets. J Food Compos Anal. 2015; 40, 8-13.

P Holownia, B Jaworska-Łuczak, I Wisniewska, P Bilinski and A Wojtyła. The benefits & potential health hazards posed by the prebiotic inulin-A review. Polish J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2010; 60, 201-11.

N Vatanasuchart, B Niyomwit and K Wongkrajang. Resistant starch content, in vitro starch digestibility and physico-chemical properties of flour and starch from Thai bananas. Maejo Int. J. Sci. Technol. 2012; 6, 259-71.

J van Loo, P Coussement, L de Leenheer, H Hoebregs and G Smits. On the presence of inulin and oligofructose as natural ingredients in the western diet. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 1995; 35, 525-52.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Online ISSN: 2228-835X


Last updated: 13 February 2019