Determination of LC50 of Copper Sulfate and Lead(II) Nitrate and Behavioral Responses of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)



In the present study, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were exposed to copper and lead for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Experimental fishes which measured an average length of 8.2 ± 0.44 cm and weighed 4.3 ± 0.5 g. Seven groups (with three replicates) of experimental fish were exposed to seven concentrations of each metal. The grass carps were kept in 21 tanks each stocked with 30 fishes were used in our experiments for each metal. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of copper to grass carp for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 2.422 mg/L, 2.222 mg/L, 2.006 mg/L, and 1.717 mg/L respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of lead to grass carp for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 293.747 mg/L, 278.019 mg/L, 260.324 mg/L, and 246.455 mg/L, respectively. In addition, the behavioral changes of grass carp at different metal concentrations were determined. LC50 increased as mean exposure times decreased for both metals. Physiological responses like rapid opercular movement and frequent gulping of air was observed during the initial stages of exposure after which it became occasional. All these observations can be considered to monitor the quality of aquatic ecosystem and severity of pollution. In conclusion, copper is more toxic than lead for grass carp.


Copper, lead, grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, LC50

Full Text:



N Luoma and PS Rainbow. Metal Contamination in Aquatic Environment. Science and Lateral Management. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2008.

GM Rand, PG Wells and LS McCarty. Introduction to Aquatic Toxicology. In: GM Rand. (ed.). Fundamental of Aquatic Toxicology: Effects, Environmental Fate and Risk Assessment. 2nd ed. Taylor & Francis, 1995, p. 3-67.

S Hirano, S Sakai, H Ebihara, N Kodama and KT Suzuki. Metabolism and pulmonary toxicity of intratracheally instilled cupric sulfate in rats. Toxicology 1990; 64, 223-33.

AJM Baker and PL Walker. Ecophysiology of Metal Uptake by Tolerant Plants. In: AJ Shaw (ed.). Heavy Metal Tolerance in Plants: Evolutionary Aspects. CRC Press, Florida, 1990, p. 155-78.

J Verkleij and H Schat. Mechanisms of Metal Tolerance in Plants. In: AJ Shaw (ed.). Heavy Metal Tolerance in Plants: Evolutionary Aspects. CRC Press, Florida, 1990, p. 179-93.

A Wozny and M Krzeslowska. Plant cell response to Pb. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 1993; 62, 101-5.

MJ Rani, M John, M Uthiralingam and R Azhaguraj. Acute toxicity of mercury and chromium to clarias batrachus (Linn). Bioresearch Bulletin 2011, 5, 368-72.

E Sindayigaya, R Van, H Cauwenbergh, H Robberecht and H Deelstra. Copper, zinc, manganese, iron, lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in fish from lake Tanganyika, Burundi. Science of the Total Environment 1994; 144, 103-15.

CC Cinier, M Petit-Ramel, R Faure, O Garin and Y Bouvet. Kinetics of cadmium accumulation and elimination in carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissues. J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 1999; 122, 345-52.

S Abdullah, M Javed and A Iram. Bio-accumulation of iron in Catla catla from river Ravi. Indus. J. Plant. Sci. 2003; 2, 54-8.

CF Mason. Biology of Freshwater Fishes. Longman Scientific and Technical Publications, New York, 1991, p. 315.

C Richmonds and HM Dutta. Effect of malathion on the optomotor behavior of bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 1992; 102, 523.

OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development). OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. OECD, Paris, 1993.

A APHA. WEF, Standard Methods for the examination of water and wastewater of the American Public Health Association. 1995.

D Finney. Probit Analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1971.

CY Chen and CL Folt. Bioaccumulation and diminution of arsenic and lead in a freshwater food web. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2000; 34, 3878-84.

JP Giesy and JP Wiener. Frequency distributions of trace metal concentrations in five freshwater fishes. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 1997; 106, 393-403.

N Barlas. A pilot study of heavy metal concentration in various environments and fishes in the upper Sakaryia river basin, Turkey. Envion. Toxicol. 1999; 14, 367-73.

GM Dethloff, HC Bailey and KL Maier. Effects of dissolved copper on select haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters of wild rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2001; 40, 371-80.

SC Deb and T Fukushima. Metals in aquatic ecosystems: Mechanism of uptake, accumulation and release. Int. J. Environ. Stud. 1999; 56, 385-33.

JC MacLeod and E Pessah. Temperature effects on mercury accumulation, toxicity and metabolic rate in rainbow trout, gairdneri. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 1972; 30, 485-92.

V Wepener, JHJ Vuren and HH DuPreez. Effect of manganese and iron at a neutral and acidic pH on the haematology of the banded Tilapia, Tilapia sparrmanii Environ. Contam. Toxicol.1992; 49, 613-9.

AMJ Rani and A Sivaraj. Adverse effects of chromium on amino acid levels in freshwater fish Clarias batrachus (Linn.). Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 2010; 92, 1879-88.

E Laws. Aquatic Pollution-An introductory Text. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2000, p. 309-430.

B Wyn, JN Sweetman, PR Leavitt and DB Donald. Historical metal concentrations in lacustrine food webs revealed using fossil ephippia from Daphnia. Ecol. Appl. 2007; 17, 754-64.

SL Shah and A Altindag. Effects of heavy metal accumulation on the 96-h LC, 2005.

M Shuhaimi-Othman, Y Nadzifah and AK Ahmad. Toxicity of copper and cadmium to freshwater fishes. World Acad. Scie. Engin. Tech. 2010; 65, 869-71.

K Park and HJ Heo. Acute and subacute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4・5H2O) in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)(Toxicology). J. Vet. Med. Sci. 2009; 71, 333-6.

LC Gomes, AR Chippari-Gomes, RN Oss, LFL Fernandes and RA Magris. Acute toxicity of copper and cadmium for piauçu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimatã, Prochilodus vimboides. Acta Sci. Biol. Sci. 2009; 31, 313-5.

R Loyd. Pollution and Freshwater Fish. Blackwell, London, 1992.

DJ Finlayson and KM Verrue. Toxicities of copper, zinc and cadmium mixture to juvenile Chinook salmon. Trance. Amer. Fish. Soc. 1982; 111, 645-50.

AJ Hansen, PG Welsh, J Lipton, D Cacela and AD Dailey. Relative sensibility of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute exposure of cadmium and zinc. J. Environ. Bio. Chem. 2002; 21, 67-75.

M Yilmaz, A Gul and E Karakose. Investigation of acute toxicity and the effect of cadmium cholorid metal salt on behaviour of the guppy (Poecilia reticulate). Chemopherm 2004; 56, 375-80.

D Mulley, GM Kamble and M Bhilave. Effect of heavy metals on nucleic acids in Cyprinus carpio. J. Environ. Bio. 2000; 21, 367-70.

A Singh, D Jain and P Kumar. Determination of LC50 of cadmium chloride in Heteropneustes fossilis. GERF Bulletin of Biosciences 2010; 1, 21-4.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Online ISSN: 2228-835X

Last updated: 13 February 2019