The Effects of a Resilience Enhancing Nursing Program on Depression among Pregnant Teenagers
Keywords:Pregnant Teenager, Resilience, Healing Presence, Depression
The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effects of the resilience enhancing nursing program (RENP) on resilience and depression among pregnant teenagers who received this program. A quasi experimental was conducted with 130 pregnant Thai women. Final analysis included 130 participants (Intervention n = 64 and control group n = 66). The RENP was delivered in three steps including; Step 1, establishing trusting relationships; Step 2, improving the resilience, and Step 3, monitoring and encouraging the resilience practice. The research instruments consisted of a demographic data questionnaire, and resilience and depressive program instruments, including a handbook and self-report. Research data were analyzed and displayed, providing percentage, mean, standard deviation, chi-square, independent t-test, paired t-test, and the repeated measures ANOVA.
The findings showed a significant difference in depression by time alone (p = 0.001). However, there was no significant difference by group alone in depression (p = 0.969). This study revealed mean score on depression in the experimental group was not significantly lower than before entering the program at week 4 and week 8 (p = 0.870, p = 0.428). However, resilience showed difference in score over time between the experimental group and control group. There was a significant difference in resilience score by time alone (F = 10.523, p < 0.001).
The results can contribute to guiding nurses to enhance decrease in depression in pregnant teenagers in the earlier first trimester in antenatal care units. Nurse or nurse midwife should be concerned about the potential for early detection in the prenatal period and provide appropriate interventions to teenage mothers in the postnatal period.
Millennium development goals, Progress towards the health-related millennium development goals, Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs290/en/index.htmlt, accessed September 2013.
SS Luthar, D Cicchetti and B Becker. The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Dev. 2000; 71, 543-62.
C Logan, E Holcombe, J Manlove and S Ryan. The Consequences of Unintended Childbearing: A White Paper. ChildTrends, 2007.
A Pillitteri. Maternal and Child Health Nursing: Care of the Childbearing and Childrearing Family. 6th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wikins: Wolter Klower, 2010.
P Lumbiganon, M Laopaiboon, AM Gülmezoglu, JP Souza, S Taneepanichskul, P Ruyan, DE Attygalle, N Shrestha, R Mori, ND Hinh, HT Bang, T Rathavy, K Chuyun, K Cheang, M Festin, V Udomprasertgul, MJV Germar, G Yanqiu, M Roy, G Carroli, K Ba-Thike, E Filatova and J Villar. Method of delivery and pregnancy outcomes in Asia: The WHO global survey on maternal and perinatal health 2007-2008. Lancet 2010; 375, 490-9.
A Pillitteri. Maternal and Child Health Nursing: Care of the Childbearing and Childrearing Family. 7th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wikins: Wolter Klower; 2015.
RS Siegal and AR Brandon. Adolescents, pregnancy, and mental health. J. Pediatr. Adolesc. Gynecol. 2014; 27, 138-50.
WHO. Depression, Avalible at: http://www.who.int/topics/depression/en, accessed April 2014.
RT Mercer and LO Walker. A review of nursing interventions to foster becoming a mother. J. Obstetric Gynecol. Neonatal Nurs. 2006; 35, 568-82.
AH Salonen, M Kaunonen, P Åstedt-Kurki, AL Järvenpää, H Isoaho and MT Tarkka. Effectiveness of an internet-based intervention enhancing finnish parents’ parenting satisfaction and parenting self-efficacy during the postpartum period. Midwifery 2011; 27, 832-41.
J Cohen. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. 2nd ed. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey, 1988.
DL Zeller. The program minimized randomization 2.01. 1997; Available at: http://mahmoodsaghaei.tripod.com/Softwares/randalloc.html, accessed April 2014.
N Takviriyanun. Development and testing of the resilience factors scale for Thai adolescents. Nurs. Health Sci. 2008; 10, 203-8.
EH Grotberg. What is Resilience? How do you Promote It? How Do You Use It? In: EH Grotberg (Ed.). Resilience fo Today: Gaining Strenght From Adversity. Praeger, Westport, CT, 2003, p. 1-30.
SC Hodgkinson, E Colantuoni, D Roberts, L Berg-Cross and HM Belcher. Depressive symptoms and birth outcomes among pregnant teenagers. J. Pediatr. Adolesc. Gynecol. 2010; 23, 16-22.
SSK Leung and TH Lam. Group antenatal intervention to reduce perinatal stress and depressive symptoms related to intergenerational conflicts: A randomized controlled trial. Int. J. Nurs. Stud. 2012; 49, 1391-402.
SA Wolchik, CE Schenck and IN Sandler. Promoting resilience in youth from divorced families: Lessons learned from experimental trials of the new beginnings program. J. Pers. 2009; 77, 1833-68.
BM Dossey and L Keegan. Holistic Nursing. 5th ed. Jones and Bartlett, Sudbury, MA, 2009.
AM Pidgeon, L Ford and F Klaassen. Evaluating the effectiveness of enhancing resilience in human service professionals using a retreat-based Mindfulness with Metta Training Program: A randomised control trial. Psychol. Health Med. 2014; 19, 355-64.
D Salazar-Pousada, D Arroyo, L Hidalgo, FR Pérez-López and P Chedraui. Depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents: A case-control study. Obstet. Gynecol. Int. 2010; 2010, 7.
P Maxson and ML Miranda. Pregnancy intention, demographic differences, and psychosocial health. J. Womens. Health. (Larchmt) 2011; 20, 1215-23.
JL Horowitz and J Garber. The prevention of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 2006; 74 ,401-15.
LE Ross and CL Dennis. The prevalence of postpartum depression among women with substance use, an abuse history, or chronic illness: A systematic review. J. Womens. Health (Larchmt) 2009; 18, 475-86.
WW Yuen, WC Wong, CS Tang, E Holroyd, AF Tiwari, DY Fong and WY Chin. Evaluating the effectiveness of personal resilience and enrichment programme (PREP) for HIV prevention among female sex workers: A randomised controlled trial. BMC Publ. Health 2013; 13, 683.
JJ Cutuli, JE Gillham, TM Chaplin, KJ Reivich, MP Seligman, RJ Gallop, RM Abenavoli and DR Freres. Preventing adolescents’ externalizing and internalizing symptoms: Effects of the Penn Resiliency Program. Int. J. Emot. Educ. 2013; 5, 67-79.
MP Seligman, RM Ernst, JE Gillham, KJ Reivich and M Linkins. Positive education: Positive psychology and classroom interventions. Oxf. Rev. Educ. 2009; 35, 293-311.
JE Gillham, KJ Reivich, DR Freres, TM Chaplin, AJ Shatte, B Samuels, AGL Elkon, S Litzinger, M Lascher, R Gallop and MEP Seligman. School-based prevention of depressive symptoms: A randomized controlled study of the effectiveness and specificity of the Penn Resiliency Program. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 2007; 75, 9-19.
ME Seligman. Building resilience. Harvard Buss. Rev. 2011; 89, 100-6.
SM Brunwasser, JE Gillham and ES Kim. A meta-analytic review of the Penn Resiliency Program's effect on depressive symptoms. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 2009; 77, 1042-54.
W Samankasikorn, B Pierce, AS Ivany, SH Gwon, D Schminkey and L Bullock. Effect of home visiting with pregnant teens on maternal health. MCN. Am. J. Matern. Child Nurs. 2016; 41, 162-7.
V Goyal, S Borrero and EB Schwarz. Unintended pregnancy and contraception among active-duty servicewomen and veterans. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 2012; 26, 463-9.
V Escribe-Aguir, MC Gonzalez-Galarzo, C Barona-Vilar and L Artazcoz. Factors related to depression during pregnancy: Are there gender differences? J. Epidemiol. Commun. Health. 2008; 62, 410-4.
MC Logsdon, DW Davis, R Stikes, R Ratterman, L Ryan and J Myers. Acceptability and initial efficacy of education for teen mothers. MCN. Am. J. Matern. Child Nurs. 2015; 40, 186-92.
E Harville, X Xiong and P Buekens. Disasters and perinatal health: A systematic review. Obstet. Gynecol. Surv. 2010; 65, 713-28.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.