1,3-β-glucan content of local medicinal mushrooms from the southern region of Thailand

Suvit Suwanno, Chiraporn PHUTPHAT


Local medicinal mushrooms were collected from Songkhla, Phatthalung, Trang and Satun Provinces during the rainy season. There were 14 specimens identified among collected samples. Among the samples, one species belonged to the Genus of Ganoderma and exhibited value for 1,3-β-glucan content that was significantly different (p≤0.05) from all other species of local medicinal mushrooms. The 1,3-β-glucan content was the highest in strains of Ganoderma calidophilum (90.22 mg/g) and Amauroderma rugosum (89.24 mg/g). Some of the more efficacious compounds of Ganoderma were 1,6-branched 1,3-β-glucan, which have been reported to inhibit tumor growth by stimulating the immune system via activation of macrophage, balance of T helper cell populations and subsequent effects on natural killer (NK) cells. Moreover, environmental factors such as vegetation, soil characteristics, and forest stand, as well as microclimate were found to be contributory to local medicinal mushroom habitats and significantly accumulated with bioactive compounds or nutraceutical products such as 1,3-β-glucan content.


Medicinal mushrooms, mycelia extraction, nutraceutical, bioactive compounds, 1,3-β-glucan


U. kűes and Y. Liu. Fruiting body production in basidiomycetes. Appl Microbiol Biot. 2000; 54,141-152.

J-L. Mau, H-C. Lin and C-C. Chen. Antioxidant properties of several medicinal mushroom. J Agr Food Chem. 2002; 50, 6072-6077.

M-F. Moradali, H. Mostafavi, S, Ghods and G-A. Hedjaroude. Immunomodulating and anticancer agents in the realm of macromycetes fungi (macrofungi). Int Immunopharmacol. 2007;7, 701-724.

M. Zhang, S.W. Cui, P.C.K. Cheung and Q. Wang. Antitumor polysaccharides from mushrooms: a review on their isolation process, structural characteristics and antitumor activity. Trends Food Sci Tech. 2007; 18, 4-19.

S. Sing, N.S.K. Harsh and S. Chandra. Morphological studies of Ganoderma lucidum from different host tree species. Int J Instituti Pharma Life Science. 2014; 4, 40-49.

A.C. Ruthes, F. R. Smiderle and M. Iacomini. d-Glucans from edible mushrooms: A review on the extraction, purification and chemical characterization approaches. Carbohydr Polymers. 2015; 117, 753-761.

A. Villares, L. Meteo-Vivaracho and E. Guillamόn. Structure features and healthy properties of polysaccharides occuring in mushrooms. Agriculture. 2012; 2, 452-471.

G.C.-F. Chan, W.K. Chan and D. M.-Y. Sze. The effects of β-glucan on human immune and cancer cells. J Hematol Oncol. 2009; 10, 25.

J.E. Rambeg, E.D. Nelson and R.A. Sinnott. Immunomudulatory dietary polysaccarides: asystematic review of the literature. Nutr J. 2010; 9, 54.

C. Grϋnndemann,M. Garcia-Käufer, B. Sauer, R. Scheer, S. Merdivan, P. Bettin, R. Huber and U. Lindequist. Comparative chemical and biological investigations of β-glucan-containing products from shiikake mushroom, J Funct Foods. 2015; 18, 692-702.

E. Guillamόn, A. García-Lafuente, M. Lozano, M. Ďarrigo, M.A. Rostagno, A. Villares and J.A. Martínez. Edible mushrooms: Role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Fitoterapia. 2010, 81, 715-723.

K.S. Bishop, C.H.J Kao, Y. Xu, M.P. Glucina and R.R.M. Paterson. From 2000 years of Ganoderma lucidum to recent developments. Phytochemistry. 2015; 114, 56-65.

J. Chen and R. Seviour. Medicinal importance of fungal β-(1→3),(1→6)-glucans. Mycol Res. 2007; 111, 635-652.

A. Hesham, E. El and H-K.Rajni. Mushroom immunomodulators: unique molecules with unlimited applications. Trends Biotecnol. 2013; 31, 668-677.

M.S. Mantovani, M.F. Bellini, J.P.F. Angeli, R.J. Oliveira, A.F. Silva and L.R. Ribeiro. β-glucans in promoting health: Prevention against mutation and cancer. Mutat Res. 2008; 658, 154-161.

J.E. Smith, N.J. Rowan and R. Sullivan. Medicinal mushrooms: a rapidly developing area of biotechnology for cancer therapy and other bioactivities. Biotechnol Lett. 2002; 24, 1839-1845.

P. Roupas, J. Keogh, M. Noakes, C. Margetts and P. Taylor. The role of edible mushrooms in health: Evaluation of the evidence. J Funct Foods. 2012; 4, 687-709.

F. Zhu, B. Du, Z. Bian and B. Xu. Beta-glucans from edible and medicinal mushrooms: Characteristics, physicochemical and biological activities. J Food Compos Anal. 2015; 41, 165-173.

D.D. De silva, S. Rapior and K.D. Hyde. Medicinal mushrooms in prevention and control of diabetes mellitus. Fungal Divers. 2012; 56, 1-29.

S.P. Wasser, Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating polysaccharides. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2002; 60, 258-274.

P. Ruksawong. Thai mushrooms and other fungi. National Science and Technology Capability. Bangkok, Thailand, 2001.

ONEP. Checklist of Mushrooms (Basidiomycetes) in Thailand. Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP). Bangkok, Thailand, 2011.

P. Stamets. Growing gourmet and medicinal mushrooms. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley California, USA. 2000. p.17-19.

A.J. Chang, J. Fan and X. Wen. Screening of fungi capable of highly selective degradation of lignin in rice straw. Int Biodeter Biodegr. 2012; 72, 26-30.

H.J. Weitz, A.L. Ballard, C.D. Campbell and K. Killham. The effect of culture conditions on the mycelial growth and luminescence of naturally bioluminescent fungi. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001; 202,165-170.

E. Kalmis and F. Kalyoncu. Mycelial growth rate of some morels (Morchella spp.) in four different microbiological media. Am-Euras J Agri Environ Sci. 2008; 3, 861-864.

S. Suwanno and S. Mulang. Enhancement of mycelial and polysaccharide production from Schizophyllumm commune by optimization of culture medium. J Sci Technol MSU. 2012; 31, 335-342. (In Thai)

S. Suwanno, K. Nakamura, Y. Amano, M. Shida and I. Horiuchi. Development of the method for efficient disrution and rapid extraction on the β-1,3-glucan determination from the mycelium of Ganoderma lucidum. Japanese Society of Mushroom Science and Biotechnology. 2005;13, 83-93.

A.M. Pёrez-Vendrell, J. Guasch, M. Francesch, J.L. Molina-Cano, J. Brufau. Determination of β-(1-3),(1-4)-D-glucans in barley by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 1995; 718, 291-297.

C. Phutphat and S. Suwanno. Biodiversity of medicinal mushrooms in the community forestry of upper southern part of Thailand as utilization for pharmacy. In: Proceedings of 35th the IIER International Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, 2015, p. 11-14.

M-Y. Kim, P. Seguin, J-K.Ahn, J-J. Kim, S-C. Chun, E-H. Kim, S-H Seo, E-U. Kang. S-L. Kim, Y-J. Park, H-M Ro and I-M Chung. Phenolic compound concentration and antioxidant activities of edible and medicinal mushrooms from Korea. J Agr Food Chem. 2008; 56, 7265-7270.

N. Kalogeropoulos, A.E. Yanni and M. Aloupi. Bioactive microconstituents and antioxidant properties of wild edible mushrooms from the island of Lesvos, Greece. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013; 55,378-385.

H. Pushpa and K.B. Purushothama. Biodiversity of mushrooms in and around Bangalore (Karnataka), India. Am-Euras J Agri Environ Sci. 2012; 12, 750-759.

S.P. Baral and A. Adur. Extraction of mushroom β-glucan and its immunomodulatory effects. Int J Pharm Bio Sci. 2014; 3,160-171.

R.C.C. Toledo, M.A. Carvalho, L.C.O. Lima, de Barros Vilas-Boas. E.V. and E.S. Dias. Measurement of β-glucan and other nutritional characteristics in distinct strains of Agaricus subrufescens mushrooms. Afr J Biotechnol. 2013; 12, 6203-6209.

J. Boonyanuphap and C. Hansawasdi. Spatial distribution of Beta glucan containing wild mushroom communities in subtropical dry forest, Thailand. Fungal Diver. 2011; 46, 29-42.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Online ISSN: 2228-835X


Last updated: 2 August 2017