Detection of β-lactams and Tetracyclines Antimicrobial Residues in Raw Dairy Milk for Human Consumption in Palestine

Ibrahim Mahmoud AL ZUHEIR


Milk and milk products are among the most important daily consumed foodstuffs. The quality and safety of raw milk for human consumption in developed countries is not adequately monitored. The lack of studies about the antimicrobial residues in milk keeps this vital topic under observation. In this brief study, 34 raw dairy milk samples were tested for detection of antimicrobial residues of β-lactams and tetracyclines above Maximum Residual Limits (MRLs). Rapid screening test, IDEXX Snap test kit was used in this study. Eighteen samples were tested for β-lactams residues, of which 22.2 % (4 of 18) appeared to be above MRLs. Sixteen samples tested for tetracycline of which 18.7 % (3 of 16) were above MRLs. This is the first report that highlights the occurrence of antimicrobial residues marketed raw milk for human consumption in Palestine.


Antimicrobial residues, raw milk, Palestine, tetracycline, β-lactams

Full Text:



MI Al-Ree. A Worksheet paper, Dairy industry in Palestine. (Reality and Prospects). Palestinian National Authority, Ministry of National Economy General Directorate of Studies and Planning 2004, p. 13.

WE Owens, SC Nickerson, RL Boddie, GM Tomita and CH Ray. Prevalence of mastitis in dairy heifers and effectiveness antibiotic therapy. J. Dairy Sci. 2001; 84, 814-7.

J Kaneene and A Ahl. Drug residues in dairy cattle industry: epidemiological evaluation of factors influencing their occurrence. J. Dairy Sci. 1987; 70, 2176-80.

SP Oliver, JL Maki and HH Dowlen. Antibiotic residues in milk following antimicrobial therapy during lactation. J. Food Protect. 1990; 53, 693-6.

SA McEwen, WD Black and AH Meek. Antibiotic residue prevention methods, farm management, and occurrence of antibiotic residues in milk. J. Dairy Sci. 1991; 74, 2128-37.

JC Oslon and AC Sanders. Penicillin in milk and milk products: Some regulatory and public health considerations. J. Milk Food Technol. 1975; 38, 630-3.

JM Dewdney, L Maes, JP Raynaud, F Blanc, JP Scheid, T Jackson, S Lens and C Verschueren. Risk assessment of antibiotic residues of beta-lactams and macrolides in food products with regard to their immunoallergic potential. Food Chem. Toxicol. 1991; 29, 477-83.

L Grunwald and M Petz. Food processing effects on residues: penicillins in milk and yoghurt. Anal. Chim. Acta 2004; 483, 73-9.

Codex Alimentarius Commission. Maximum Residue Limits for Veterinary Drugs in Foods, Available at:

K Rybinska, J Postupolski and M Szczsena. Residues of antibiotics and other inhibitory substances in milk. Rocz. Panstw. Zakl. Hig. 1995; 46, 239-41.

AA Adesiyun, LA Webb and V Balbirsingh. Prevalence of antimicrobial residues in preprocessed and processed cows’ milk in Trinidad. J. Food Saf. 1997; 16, 301-10.

CE Ekuttan, EK Kang’ethe, VN Kimani and TF Randolph. Investigation on the prevalence of antimicrobial residues in milk obtained from urban smallholder dairy and non-dairy farming households in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr. Med. J. 2007; 84, 87-91.

H Alomirah, H Al-Mazeedi, S Al-Zenki, T Al-Aati, J Al-Otaibi, M Al-Batel and J Sidhu. Prevalence of antimicrobial residues in milk and dairy products in the state of Kuwait. J. Food Qual. 2007; 30, 745-63.

D Helena, DD Zdenka, SG Ksenija, K Andrej and CF Vesna. Residues of certain veterinary drugs in raw milk in Slovenia in the 2000-2002 periods. Int. J. Environ. Pollut. 2007; 31, 155-66.

JJ Sasanya, F Ejobi, J Enyaru, D Olila and G Ssengoye. Public health perspectives of penicillin G residues in cow milk and edible bovine tissues collected from Mbarara and Masaka Districts, Uganda. African J. Anim. Biomed. Sci. 2008; 3, 35-40.

JE Riviere. Pharmacologic principles of residue avoidance for veterinary practitioners. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 1991; 198, 809-16.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Online ISSN: 2228-835X

Last updated: 13 February 2019