Energy analysis and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from strawberry production under two irrigation systems



The aims of this study were to estimate the energy indices, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and comparison the amount of energy balance of open field strawberry production under furrow and drip irrigation systems in Kurdistan province, west of Iran. Data used in this study were obtained from 24 field strawberry growers using a face to face questionnaire method in 2014. In order to convert inputs and output into the energy equivalents, energy equivalent coefficients were applied. The results indicate that total energy consumption in strawberry production was 16,206.83 MJ ha-1 and 16,525.69 MJ ha-1, whereas the total energy output was 38,950.00 MJ ha-1 and 52,385.70 MJ ha-1in furrow and drip irrigation systems, respectively. Energy use efficiency and net energy in drip irrigation system were higher than furrow irrigation system. Nitrogen fertilizer was the major energy consumer in both of the irrigation systems. From an environmental viewpoint, total amount of GHG emission was 764.28 kg CO2 equivalent ha-1 and 1,284.19 kg CO2 equivalent ha-1 in furrow and drip systems, respectively.  In furrow system, nitrogen fertilizer and diesel fuel had the highest share in GHG emissions, with 51.76 and 20.72 percent of total, respectively, but in drip system, machinery had the highest share in GHG emissions, with 53.11 percent of total.


Energy use efficiency, net energy, strawberry production, GHG emissions


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