Deltamethrin 10%-Impregnated Screens Pitched in a Tsetse Endemic Area in the Sudano-Sahelian Region of Cameroon Reduce Tsetse Fly Density and Trypanosomosis Incidence

Mamoudou ABDOULMOUMINI, Sevidzem Silas LENDZELE, Jean Marc FEUSSOM, Abdoulay MFEWOU


A field trial was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of Deltamethrin-impregnated screens in a tsetse endemic zone in Cameroon over a period of 26 months (September 2011 to October 2013). Tsetse barriers consisted of Deltamethrin-treated odor-baited targets (n = 376), deployed on Bini pasture. Similarly, biconical traps were also installed (100 - 200 m apart in each site) for 48 h during sampling (the beginning and the end of the dry and the rainy seasons), and screen density was 1 screen per 100 m2. Parasitological and hematological analyses were carried out using standard protocols, namely, the Buffy Coat Examination (BCE) and hematocrit evaluation. Trypanosomes identified included: Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax, and T. brucei brucei. Overall fly catch was 1491 flies (Glossina m. submorsitans and G. tachinoides). The overall mean apparent density of flies before deployment of traps was 28.9 flies/trap/day (F/T/D)±12.48 SD, which was significantly higher (P > 0.05) than the density post screen installation of 18.4 F/T/D ± 5.67SD. BCE positive samples, and PCV did not show a statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) with season. Disease incidence was not significantly different (P > 0.05) before or after the deployment of screens. Body weight was significantly different (P < 0.05), while BCT and PCV were not significantly different (P > 0.05) pre or post-intervention with screens. Body weight was significantly different (P < 0.05) between seasons, while BCT and PCV were not (P > 0.05). In conclusion, screens readily cleared tsetse infestation and reduced trypanosomosis incidence, as well as improved host health and reduced related risk factors in the area.


Deltamethrin-impregnated screens, cattle, tsetse control, trypanosomosis, Cameroon

Full Text:



MD Achukwi and GA Musongong. Trypanosomiasis in the Dayo/Namchi (Bos taurus) and zebu White Fulani (Bos indicus) cattle in Faro Division, North Cameroon. J. Applied Biosci. 2009; 15, 807-14.

SE Mpouam, MD Achukwi, SM Feussom Kameni, Bengaly and GA Ouedraogo. Serological and Parasitological Prevalence of bovine trypanosomiasis in small holder farms of the Vina division, Adamawa Region of Cameroon. J. Parasitol Vector Biol. 2011; 3, 44-51.

A Mamoudou, VK Payne and SL Sevidzem. Hematocrit alterations in naturally infected indigenous cattle breeds due to Trypanosoma spp. in the Adamaoua Plateau. J. Vet. World 2015; 8, 813-8.

S Geerts. The struggle against tsetse flies and animal trypanosomiasis in Africa. In: Lecture at the Academic Session and Dedicated in Memory of Professor Peter Van den Bossche an Associated Member of RAOS, 2011.

V Delespaux and HP de Koning. Drugs and drug resistance in African trypanosomiasis. Drug Resist. Updates 2007; 10, 30-50.

A Mamoudou, A Zoli, C Tanenbe, JP Andrikaye, Bourdanne, T Marcotty, V Delespaux, PH Clausen and S Geerts. Evaluation on the field and on mice of the resistance of bovine trypanosomes on the Adamaoua plateau to diminazene aceturate and Isometamidium chloride. Rev. Livest. Med. Vet. J. Trop. Countries 2006; 59, 11-6.

SJ Torr, I Maudlin and GA Vale. Less is more: Restricted application of insecticide to cattle to improve the cost and efficacy of tsetse control. Med. Vet. Entomol. 2007; 21, 53-64.

PV den Bossche. Some general aspects of the distribution and epidemiology of bovine trypanosomiasis in southern Africa. Int. J. Parasitol. 2001; 31, 592-8.

A Shaw. Economic Guidelines for Strategic Planning of Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Control in West Africa. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 2003, p. 75.

J Bekele, K Asmare, G Abebe, G Ayelet and E Gelaye. Evaluation of Deltamethrin applications in the control of tsetse and trypanosomiasis in the Southern rift valley areas of Ethiopia. Vet. Parasitol. 2010; 168, 177-84.

D Muhanguzi, K Picozzi, J Hatendorf, M Thrusfield, SC Welburn, JD Kabasa and C Waiswa. Improvements on restricted insecticide application protocol for control of Human and Animal African Trypanosomiasis in eastern Uganda. PLOS Neg. Trop. Dis. 2014; 30, e3284.

F Courtin, M Camara, J Rayaisse, M Kagbadouno, E Dama, O Camara, I Traoré, J Rouamba, M Peylhard, MB Somda, M Leno, MJ Lehane, SJ Torr, P Solano, V Jamonneau and B Bucheton. Reducing human-tsetse contact significantly enhances the efficacy of sleeping sickness active screening campaigns: A promising result in the context of elimination. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015; 9, e0003727.

JM Lindh, P Goswami, RS Blackburn, SEJ Arnold, GA Vale, MJ Lehane and SJ Torr. Optimizing the colour and fabric of targets for the control of the tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes. PLOS Neg. Trop. Dis. 2012; 6, e1661.

G Girmay, B Arega, D Tesfaye, D Berkvens, G Muleta and G Asefa. Community-based tsetse fly control significantly reduces fly density and trypanosomosis prevalence in Metekel Zone, Northwest, Ethiopia. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 2016; 48, 633-42.

JB Rayaisse, T Krober, A McMullin, P Solano, S Mihok and PM Guerin. Standardizing visual control devices for tsetse flies: West African species Glossina tachinoides, G. palpalis gambiensis and G. morsitans submorsitans. PLOS Neg. Trop. Dis. 2012; 6, e1491.

AA Ayano, T Olbamo and B Kapitano. Experimental study on the efficacy and persistence of deltamethrin1%, pour-on (smash) for the control of tsetse flies in the southern rift valley of Ethiopia. Res. J. Chem. Environ. Sci. 2013; 1, 89-98.

Chad Expert Project. Compensation Plan Environmental Management Plan Cameroon Portion. Environmental Foundation Plan, Cameroon, 1999.

J Paris, M Murray and FM Odimba. A comparative evaluation of the parasitological techniques currently available for the diagnosis of African Trypanosomosis in cattle. Acta Trop. 1982; 39, 307-16.

A Challier and C Laveissiére. Un nouveau Piège pour la capture des Glossines (Glossina: Diptera, Muscidae). Description et essais sur le terrain. Cahiers ORSTOM Série Entomo.l Parasitol. 1973; 11, 251-60.

R Brightwell, RD Dransfield, CA Korku, TK Golder, SA Tarimo and D Murgin. A new trap for Glossina palidipes. Trop. Pest Manag. 1987; 33, 151-9.

SGA Leak and W Mulatu. Advance of Glossina morsitans submorsitans and G. pallidipes along the Ghibe river system in southwest Ethiopia. Acta Trop. 1993; 55, 91-5.

WP Langridge. A Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Survey of Ethiopia. Ministry of Overseas Development, Ethiopia, 1976.

D Mulugeta, M Sissay and K Ameha. The study on tsetse fly (Glossina species) and their role in the trypanosome infection rate in Birbir Valley, Baro Akobo River system, Western Ethiopia. J. Vet. Med. Anim Health 2013; 5, 186-94.

RC Zinga-Koumba, GL Acapovi, JF Mavoungou, K Tongu, OA Mbang, KP Nguema, ObameOndo and M Shango. Influence de la saison sur l’ecodistribution des glossines, Tabanides, Stomoxes du Bai de Momba Makokou, Gabon. Agronomie Africaine 2013; 25, 149-58.

G Acapovi-Yao, D Kaba, K Allou, DD Zoh, L Kohagne, T Ongué and KEN Goran. Assessment of the efficiency of insecticide paint and impregnated nets on tsetse populations: Preliminary study in forest relics of Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. West Afr. J. Appl. Ecol. 2014; 22, 17-25.

B Bauer, B Holzgrefe, CI Mahama, MPO Baumann, D Mehlitz and PH Clausen. Managing tsetse transmitted trypanosomosis by insecticide treated nets: An affordable and sustainable method for resource poor pig farmers in Ghana. PLOS Neg. Trop. Dis. 2011; 5, e1343.

MO Muzari. Odour-baited targets as invasion barriers for tsetse flies, Glossina spp. Diptera: Glossinidae. Bull. Entomol. Res. 1999; 86, 579-83.

S Msangi.1999, Distribution, Density and Infection Rates of Tsetse in Selected Sites of Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia. M.Sc. Thesis. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University of Ethiopia.

DJ Rogers and SE Randolph. Mortality rates and population density of tsetse flies correlated with satellite imagery. Nature 1991; 351, 739-41.

SGA Leak, KA Woume, C Colardelle, W Duffera, A Feron, M Mulingo, G Tikubet, M Toure and G Yangari. Determination of Tsetse Challenge and Its Relationship with Trypanosomosis Prevalence. Livestock Production in Tsetse Infested Areas of Africa, Nairobi, Kenya, 1987, p. 43-52.

R Brightwell, RD Dransfield and BG Williams. Factors affecting seasonal dispersal of tsetse flies Glossina pallidipes and G. longipennis (Diptera: Glossinidae) at Nguruman, south-west Kenya. Bull. Entomol. Res. 1992; 82, 167-82.

A Chamsa and C Mweempwa. Control of tsetse flies G. pallidipes Austen and G. morsitans west wood in the Karibahills, an area common to Zambia and Zimbabwe. In: Proceedings of the International Scientific Council for Trypanosomiasis Research and Control. Maputo, Tanzania, 1997.

CD Steelman. Effects of external and internal arthropod parasites on domestic livestock production. Anim. Rev. Entomol. 1976; 21, 155-78.

RH Roberts and WA Pund. Control of bitting flies on beef steers: Effect on performance in pasture and feed lot. J. Econs. Entomol. 1974; 67, 232-4.

K Picozzi, S Welburn, A Majekodunmi, A Fajinmi and M Thrusfield. Seasonal variation and the effect of land use patterns and on the epidemiology of trypanosomiasis in a previously tsetse free area the Jos Plateau, Nigeria. In: Proceedings of the 13th Association of Institutions for Tropical Veterinary Medicine. Bangkok, Thailand, 2010, p. 27-8.

N Mbahin, A Zoli, A Mamoudou, C Tanenbe, S Abah, RT Ghogomu, SF Nouala and F Njeumi. Parasitological prevalence of bovine trypanosomiasis in Faro and Deo Division Cameroon, Ten years after the tsetse eradication campaign. Bull. Anim. Health Prod. Afr. 2008; 56, 289-97.

V Kovacic, I Tirados, J Esterhuizen, CTN Mangwiro, SJ Torr, MJ Lehane and H Smith. Community acceptance of tsetse control baits: A qualitative study in Arua district, North West Uganda. PLOS Neg. Trop. Dis. 2013; 7, e2579.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Online ISSN: 2228-835X

Last updated: 13 February 2019