Corrective Estimation of Copper Deposition Density onto Stainless Steel Substrate by Electroplating



Deposition patterns and density calculation of the copper (Cu) electroplating from CuSO4 solution onto stainless steel substrate were studied in order to gain better understanding of the relationship between correlated structures and their properties. Square non-porous stainless steel disks (316L SS), having a dimension of 1×1 cm, with a thickness of 1 mm, were used as the substrate. The electroplating system consisted of a Cu bar as the anode and 25 wt% CuSO4 plating solution. A potential of 2.0 volts was applied for the Cu plating at room temperature. The amount of the deposited Cu was determined by measurement of its weight increment. Layer thickness was obtained from the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) micrograph analysis. Density estimation of the deposited Cu was calculated from the mass difference and volume of plated layer, as described. Total Cu atoms using Faraday’s equation was used to obtain the theoretical density estimation. The density gradually decreased with the increasing thickness, suggesting that the Cu atoms deposited onto the growing nucleation were less packed at a longer period of plating time. Additionally, the rate of thickness increasing was higher over a longer time. It is believed that void formation was presented in the later state of the coagulation, in which complexity in nucleation growth occurred.


Copper electroplating, deposition density, density estimation, amorphous, stainless steel substrate

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Last updated: 13 February 2019